AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE
Ramanathapuram District lies on the Southern Zone and is bounded in the east by Palk strait of Ramanathapuram district of the southern zone, in the north west by Virudhunagar and in north east by Sivagangai districts of the southern zone, in the south by Gulf of Mannar of the Southern zone and in the North by Pudukkottai district of the southern zone. It lies between 9.05° ‘ to 9.50° ’ North latitudes and 78.10° ‘ to 79.27° ‘ East longitudes.
General Temperature of the zone/ District during different seasons:
The average maximum temperature ranges between 29.2° to 37.8° C and the minimum between 19.5° to 24.8° C. The difference between the mean maximum and the mean minimum temperature is highest during the months of March.
Humidity of the zone/ District:
In general, the humidity percentage ranges between 75% to 79%. the highest relative humidity percentage of 85% is recorded during month of November and the lowest relative humidity percentage of 75% is recorded during month of May in this southern zone/ Ramanathapuram District.
General Wind pattern of the zone/ District:
Wind velocity is lowest during the month of October-November from October-March. Wind blows generally from North easterly and easterly directions. South westerly and westerly winds are predominant from May to September.
North East Monsoon is the Main source of Irrigation water. Average annual rainfall is 827.0 mm, Average Winter Rainfall-67.4 mm; Summer-122.7 mm; South West Monsoon- 135.3and North East Monsoon Rainfall-501.6 mm.
The soils of Ramanathapuram District can be assorted into the main types viz., clay, coastal alluvium, sandy loam, alluvium, sandy and red soil clay, and black cotton soil.
Coastal alluvium occurs in Kadaladi, R.S.Mangalam, Mandapam, Ramanathapuram, Thiruppullani and Thiruvadanai blocks. There are vast stretches of saline and alkaline soils found in the coastal blocks. Rameswaram Island contains mainly sandy soil.
The fertility status of soil showed that nitrogen status of soil is low in al blocks and phosphorus status of soil is also low in all blocks except Thiruppullani, Kamuthi and Kadaladi where it is medium. The potash content of soil is high in all the blocks. The mineral resources of the soil include gypsum, limestone and magnesium. While Mudukulatur and Kilakarai regions account for sizable deposits of gypsum. Rameswaram Island contains large quantities of limestone deposits.
CROPPING PATTERN IN RAMANATHAPURAM DISTRICT
The total cropped area of the district/ zone is 172469 hectares (as per 2016-17 G-return). The area under irrigated agriculture is 63800 Hectare, while 137099 hectare is under rainfed Agriculture. The major food grain crops cultivated are Paddy, cholam , cumbu , Ragi and Blackgram. Cotton is the major non food crop grown.
In Ramanathapuram District, Paddy is main food crop cultivated in more than 73% of the net area sown. It is cultivated both as irrigated and rainfed. Rainfed sowing generally commences from August and will extend upto October. In early sown area, farmers used to raise medium and long duration varieties of paddy. There is no marked area for late sowing, but when the monsoon rains delayed, the sowing will be also taken up late. In the late sown areas medium and short duration paddy varieties are sown. Farmers are having 10 local paddy varieties in addition to high yielding varieties with the duration ranging from 105-130 days and they will choose varieties according to the need based. Redgram is sown as a mixed crop with rainfed areas and also grown in garden lands to a limited extent. In tankfed ayacut area Irrigated paddy is sown generally in August to November. Sometimes sowing will be further extended upto December according to the filling of rainwater in the tanks and also release of water from Vaigai Dam to the Vaigai fed system tanks.
Rainfed Cholam sowing is taken up in dry lands between July to September. Beyond September there would not be any sowing of Cholam crop and Cumbu crop will be sown as alternate crop in these areas. Lablab pulses is also sown as mixed crop.
Rainfed Cumbu sowing is generally taken up between September to November. Only in Ramanathapuram Taluk the sowing will be extended upto December. Irrigated Cumbu is taken up from February, March to June, July.
Rainfed Ragi sowing is taken up during September and October. Irrigated Ragi is mainly sown in September to October in East Ramanathapuram where the crop is sown in tankfed ayacut.
Minor millets are generally sown between July to November and the area is spread over throughout the district.
Rainfed cotton sowing is taken up in September-October. The sowing will be extended sometimes upto December depending upon rainfall. Rice fallow cotton is generally sown in Paramakudi and Kamuthi taluks during January-February months.
Redgram is sown in June to August. Blackgram, Greengram and Cowpea are sown as rainfed crop in September, October months. Redgram is sown as mixed crop with millets and groundnut. Blackgram and Greengram are sown as pure crop as well as mixed crop in cotton and sugarcane. The Cowpea is sown as pure crop and also in some places as mixed crop with millets.
GROUNDNUT AND GINGELY
Groundnut and Gingely are cultivated mostly in Rainfed condition, during the month of December-January and April – May.
Chilies are cultivated in both rain fed and irrigated condition. Chilies are directly broadcasted in the month of September. The transplanted chilies will be taken in the fortnight of November.
|Irrigated Area||In Ha.|
|Total cropped area||198818|
|Gross area irrigated||63591|
|Net area irrigated||63591|
|Source of Irrigation||In Nos.|
|Category of workers||In Nos.|
|S.No||Name of the Block||Ex-zamin(MI)||Panchayat(MI)||Vaigai Basin(PWD)||Gundar Basin(PWD)||Manimuthar(PWD)||Total|
|Sl. No.||Block||PWD Tanks||Panchayat Union Tanks||Ex zamin Tanks||Total|
|Sl.No.||Crop||Normal area in Hectares||Productivity per Hec. in Kgs.||Production in Metric Tones|
|14||Coconut||8207||9229||757 lakh nuts|
|Size of holding||Percentage (%)||Area in Hec.|
|> 10 Hec||0.39%||1511|