Agriculture

AGRO CLIMATIC ZONE

Ramanathapuram District lies on the Southern Zone and is bounded in the east by Palk strait of Ramanathapuram district of the southern zone, in the north west by Virudhunagar and in north east by Sivagangai districts of the southern zone, in the south by Gulf of Mannar of the Southern zone and in the North by Pudukkottai district of the southern zone. It lies between 9.05° ‘ to 9.50° ’ North latitudes and 78.10° ‘ to 79.27° ‘ East longitudes.

General Temperature of the zone/ District during different seasons:

The average maximum temperature ranges between 29.2° to 37.8° C and the minimum between 19.5° to 24.8° C. The difference between the mean maximum and the mean minimum temperature is highest during the months of March.

Humidity of the zone/ District:

In general, the humidity percentage ranges between 75% to 79%. the highest relative humidity percentage of 85% is recorded during month of November and the lowest relative humidity percentage of 75% is recorded during month of May in this southern zone/ Ramanathapuram District.

General Wind pattern of the zone/ District:

Wind velocity is lowest during the month of October-November from October-March. Wind blows generally from North easterly and easterly directions. South westerly and westerly winds are predominant from May to September.

RAINFALL PATTERN

North East Monsoon is the Main source of Irrigation water. Average annual rainfall is 827.0 mm, Average Winter Rainfall-67.4 mm; Summer-122.7 mm; South West Monsoon- 135.3and North East Monsoon Rainfall-501.6 mm.

SOIL:

The soils of Ramanathapuram District can be assorted into the main types viz., clay, coastal alluvium, sandy loam, alluvium, sandy and red soil clay, and black cotton soil.

Coastal alluvium occurs in Kadaladi, R.S.Mangalam, Mandapam, Ramanathapuram, Thiruppullani and Thiruvadanai blocks. There are vast stretches of saline and alkaline soils found in the coastal blocks. Rameswaram Island contains mainly sandy soil.
The fertility status of soil showed that nitrogen status of soil is low in al blocks and phosphorus status of soil is also low in all blocks except Thiruppullani, Kamuthi and Kadaladi where it is medium. The potash content of soil is high in all the blocks. The mineral resources of the soil include gypsum, limestone and magnesium. While Mudukulatur and Kilakarai regions account for sizable deposits of gypsum. Rameswaram Island contains large quantities of limestone deposits.

CROPPING PATTERN IN RAMANATHAPURAM DISTRICT

The total cropped area of the district/ zone is 172469 hectares (as per 2016-17 G-return). The area under irrigated agriculture is 63800 Hectare, while 137099 hectare is under rainfed Agriculture. The major food grain crops cultivated are Paddy, cholam , cumbu , Ragi and Blackgram. Cotton is the major non food crop grown.

PADDY

In Ramanathapuram District, Paddy is main food crop cultivated in more than 73% of the net area sown. It is cultivated both as irrigated and rainfed. Rainfed sowing generally commences from August and will extend upto October. In early sown area, farmers used to raise medium and long duration varieties of paddy. There is no marked area for late sowing, but when the monsoon rains delayed, the sowing will be also taken up late. In the late sown areas medium and short duration paddy varieties are sown. Farmers are having 10 local paddy varieties in addition to high yielding varieties with the duration ranging from 105-130 days and they will choose varieties according to the need based. Redgram is sown as a mixed crop with rainfed areas and also grown in garden lands to a limited extent. In tankfed ayacut area Irrigated paddy is sown generally in August to November. Sometimes sowing will be further extended upto December according to the filling of rainwater in the tanks and also release of water from Vaigai Dam to the Vaigai fed system tanks.

CHOLAM

Rainfed Cholam sowing is taken up in dry lands between July to September. Beyond September there would not be any sowing of Cholam crop and Cumbu crop will be sown as alternate crop in these areas. Lablab pulses is also sown as mixed crop.

CUMBU

Rainfed Cumbu sowing is generally taken up between September to November. Only in Ramanathapuram Taluk the sowing will be extended upto December. Irrigated Cumbu is taken up from February, March to June, July.

RAGI

Rainfed Ragi sowing is taken up during September and October. Irrigated Ragi is mainly sown in September to October in East Ramanathapuram where the crop is sown in tankfed ayacut.

MINOR MILLETS

Minor millets are generally sown between July to November and the area is spread over throughout the district.

COTTON

Rainfed cotton sowing is taken up in September-October. The sowing will be extended sometimes upto December depending upon rainfall. Rice fallow cotton is generally sown in Paramakudi and Kamuthi taluks during January-February months.

PULSES

Redgram is sown in June to August. Blackgram, Greengram and Cowpea are sown as rainfed crop in September, October months. Redgram is sown as mixed crop with millets and groundnut. Blackgram and Greengram are sown as pure crop as well as mixed crop in cotton and sugarcane. The Cowpea is sown as pure crop and also in some places as mixed crop with millets.

GROUNDNUT AND GINGELY

Groundnut and Gingely are cultivated mostly in Rainfed condition, during the month of December-January and April – May.

CHILIES

Chilies are cultivated in both rain fed and irrigated condition. Chilies are directly broadcasted in the month of September. The transplanted chilies will be taken in the fortnight of November.

Irrigated Area
Irrigated Area In Ha.
Total cropped area 198818
Gross area irrigated 63591
Net area irrigated 63591
Source of Irrigation
Source of Irrigation In Nos.
Major Canals Nil
Tanks 1694
Tube Wells 425
Dug Wells 7321
Category of workers
Category of workers In Nos.
Cultivators 173767
Agricultural Labourers 153874
IRRIGATION TANK PARTICULARS
S.No Name of the Block Ex-zamin(MI) Panchayat(MI) Vaigai Basin(PWD) Gundar Basin(PWD) Manimuthar(PWD) Total
1 Ramanathapuram 5 42 34 81
2 Thiruppullani 5 52 22 79
3 Mandapam 1 1
4 Paramakudi 77 12 49 138
5 Bogalur 49 5 33 87
6 Nainarkoil 47 7 45 99
7 Thiruvadanai 83 115 62 27 287
8 R.S.Mangalam 68 106 77 251
9 Kamuthi 45 169 0 38 252
10 Mudukulathur 38 104 12 28 182
11 Kadaladi 20 143 74 237
Total 437 755 335 140 27 1694
AYACUT AREA UNDER DIFFERENT IRRIGATION SOURCE
Sl. No. Block PWD Tanks Panchayat Union Tanks Ex zamin Tanks Total
1 Ramanathapuram 5180.8 660 102.4 5943.2
2 Thiruppullani 2478.4 784.8 64.8 3328
3 Mandapam 38 38
4 Paramakudi 5819.6 276.4 1312.8 7408.8
5 Bogalur 3000.4 66.8 632 3699.2
6 Nainarkoil 4198 133.6 914.4 5246
7 Thiruvadanai 5114.8 2049.2 968.8 8132.8
8 R.S.Mangalam 10060 1944 1065.2 13069
9 Kamuthi 3676.4 2454.4 468.8> 6599.6
10 Mudukulathur 3740.4 1773.2 53240 6046
11 Kadaladi 7025.6 2352 235.6 9613.2
Total 50332 12494 6297 69124
NORMAL AREA PRODUCTIVITY AND PRODUCTION OF MAJOR CROPS
Sl.No. Crop Normal area in Hectares Productivity per Hec. in Kgs. Production in Metric Tones
1 Paddy 121742 3621 440827
2 Cholam 2629 1975 5192
3 Cumbu 915 3445 3152
4 Ragi 369 3040 1121
5 Minor Millets 1643 1610 2645
6 Total millets 6271 3114 19527
7 Pulses 3517 450 1583
8 Cotton 1915 1.53(Bales) 4980
9 Groundnut 3533 2255 7966
10 Sunflower 90 1400 126
11 Gingelly 1301 361 469
12 Chillies 19238 639 12293
13 Coriander 1488 1618 2407
14 Coconut 8207 9229 757 lakh nuts
15 Sugarcane 456 107 48792
16 Maize 715 5500 3932
CONSUMPTION OF CHEMICAL FERTILISERS AND PESTICIDES
District Urea(Tones) DAP(Tones) Potash(Tones) Complex(Tones) Pesticides-Dust(Tones) Liquid(Liters)
Ramanathapuram 7503 2654 677 2862 30.020 24262.70
Distribution of Operational holding of Land
Size of holding Percentage (%) Area in Hec.
<1 Hec 77.61% 298841
1-2 Hec 13.98% 53862
2-4 Hec 5.93% 22858
4-10 Hec 2.06% 7941
> 10 Hec 0.39% 1511
Total 100% 385013